Skin Cancer

Squamous cell skin cancer

Squamous-cell skin cancer, also known as cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma (cSCC), is one of the main types of skin cancer along with basal cell cancer, and melanoma.[10] It usually presents as a hard lump with a scaly top but can also form an ulcer.[1] Onset is often over months.[4] Squamous-cell skin cancer is more likely to spread to distant areas than basal cell cancer.[11]

The greatest risk factor is high total exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the Sun.[2] Other risks include prior scars, chronic wounds, actinic keratosislighter skinBowen’s diseasearsenic exposure, radiation therapypoor immune system function, previous basal cell carcinoma, and HPV infection.[2][12] Risk from UV radiation is related to total exposure, rather than early exposure.[13] Tanning beds are becoming another common source of ultraviolet radiation.[13] It begins from squamous cells found within the skin.[14] Diagnosis is often based on skin examination and confirmed by tissue biopsy.[2][3]

Decreasing exposure to ultraviolet radiation and the use of sunscreen appear to be effective methods of preventing squamous-cell skin cancer.[5][6] Treatment is typically by surgical removal.[2] This can be by simple excision if the cancer is small otherwise Mohs surgery is generally recommended.[2] Other options may include application of cold and radiation therapy.[7] In the cases in which distant spread has occurred chemotherapy or biologic therapy may be used.[7]

As of 2015, about 2.2 million people have cSCC at any given time.[8] It makes up about 20% of all skin cancer cases.[15] About 12% of males and 7% of females in the United States developed cSCC at some point in time.[2] While prognosis is usually good, if distant spread occurs five-year survival is ~34%.[4][5] In 2015 it resulted in about 51,900 deaths globally.[9] The usual age at diagnosis is around 66.[4] Following the successful treatment of one case of cSCC people are at high risk of developing further cases.[2]


Applewood is a census-designated place (CDP) in Jefferson CountyColoradoUnited States. The population was 7,160 at the 2010 census.[2]

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 7,123 people, 2,954 households, and 2,055 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1,473.6 people per square mile (569.4/km²). There were 3,067 housing units at an average density of 634.5 per square mile (245.2/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 94.59% White, 0.38% African American, 0.51% Native American, 1.22% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 1.47% from other races, and 1.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.38% of the population.

There were 2,954 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.9% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.4% were non-families. 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.87.